Lenders can not levy penalty for default/non-compliance of fabric phrases and situations of mortgage contracts by a borrower within the type of ‘penal curiosity’ that’s added to the speed of curiosity charged on the advances, based on the RBI.
In its draft round on ‘Truthful Lending Apply – Penal Costs in Mortgage Accounts, the RBI mentioned penalty within the aforementioned case must be handled solely as ‘penal fees’.
The operationalisation of the ‘penal fees’ instead of ‘penal curiosity’ can be topic to acceptable overview throughout supervisory examination by the RBI.
The RBI addressed the draft round to all Industrial Banks, City Co-operative Banks, NBFCs (together with HFCs) and All India Monetary Establishments.
“There shall be no capitalisation of penal fees — that’s, no additional curiosity computed on such fees. Nevertheless, this is not going to have an effect on the traditional procedures for compounding of curiosity within the mortgage account,” mentioned the RBI.
The central financial institution famous that many REs use penal charges of curiosity, over and above the relevant rates of interest, in case of defaults / non-compliance by the borrower with the phrases on which credit score services have been sanctioned.
RBI emphasised that the intent of levying penal curiosity/ fees is basically to inculcate a way of credit score self-discipline amongst debtors by means of unfavorable incentives and to make sure honest compensation to the lender.
Penal curiosity/fees should not meant for use as a income enhancement software over and above the contracted price of curiosity, it added.
“It must be recognised that the speed of curiosity on a mortgage contains acceptable credit score danger premium reflecting the credit score danger profile of the borrower. If the credit score danger profile of the borrower undergoes change, REs can be free to change credit score danger premium as per the contracted phrases and situations…,” the round mentioned.
RBI underscored that the quantum of penal fees ought to be proportional to the defaults/ non-compliance of fabric phrases and situations of mortgage contract past a threshold. This threshold is to be decided by the REs and can’t be discriminatory inside a selected mortgage/product class.
The penal fees in case of loans sanctioned to particular person debtors, for functions aside from enterprise, can’t be greater than the penal fees relevant to non-individual debtors.
Penal fees and the situations precedent therefor, ought to be clearly disclosed by REs to the purchasers within the mortgage settlement and most vital phrases & situations / Key Reality Assertion (KFS) as relevant, along with being displayed on REs web site underneath Rates of interest and Service Costs.
RBI mentioned at any time when reminders for fee of instalments are despatched to debtors, the relevant penal fees, also needs to be communicated.
The central financial institution mentioned REs have to make sure that there’s a clearly laid down Board authorised coverage on penal fees or comparable fees on loans.
RBI mentioned stakeholders can submit their feedback on the ‘Draft Round’ by Could 15, 2023.